Statistics Notes
Spring 2019

### Chapter 1 Sampling and Data

#### § 1.1 Basic Definitions

• Population
• Census
• Parameter
• Sample
• Data and variables
• Statistic
• mean
• median
• proportion

#### § 1.2 Sampling

• Data types
• Qualitative, categorical
• Quantitative: discrete or continuous
• Sampling Methods
• Random
• Simple Random
• Stratified
• Quota
• Cluster
• Systematic
• Convenience
• Voluntary
• Sampling Bias
• Sampling Variability (natural variation)
• Trouble
• Convenience samples
• Voluntary response
• Self-interest study
• Response bias
• Non-response bias
• Perceived lack of anonymity
• Types of Graphs and Charts

#### § 1.3 Frequency Tables

• Frequency Table
• 6 to 20 classes
• Decide on number of class; find start and width
• Classes should be the same width
• There is no "best" histogram
• Relative and Cumilative frequency
TemperatureCountRelativeCumulative
96.4 ≤ x < 96.8211/250.04
96.82 ≤ x < 97.2466/250.28
97.24 ≤ x < 97.6633/250.4
97.66 ≤ x < 98.0866/250.64
98.08 ≤ x < 98.566/250.88
98.5 ≤ x < 98.9233/251

#### § 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics

• Experiments
• Observational studies
• Experiment
• Treatment
• Confounding
• Control Group
• Placebo Effect
• Placebo controlled experiment
• Blind Study
• Double-blind Study
• Ratio, Proportion, Percent