Statistics Notes
Spring 2019

Chapter 1 Sampling and Data

§ 1.1 Basic Definitions

  • Population
  • Census
  • Parameter
  • Sample
  • Data and variables
  • Statistic
    • mean
    • median
    • proportion

§ 1.2 Sampling

  • Data types
    • Qualitative, categorical
    • Quantitative: discrete or continuous
  • Sampling Methods
    • Random
    • Simple Random
    • Stratified
    • Quota
    • Cluster
    • Systematic
    • Convenience
    • Voluntary
  • Sampling Bias
  • Sampling Variability (natural variation)
  • Trouble
    • Convenience samples
    • Voluntary response
    • Self-interest study
    • Response bias
    • Non-response bias
    • Perceived lack of anonymity
    • Loaded questions, question order
  • Types of Graphs and Charts

§ 1.3 Frequency Tables

  • Frequency Table
    • 6 to 20 classes
    • Decide on number of class; find start and width
    • Classes should be the same width
    • There is no "best" histogram
  • Relative and Cumilative frequency
    TemperatureCountRelativeCumulative
    96.4 ≤ x < 96.8211/250.04
    96.82 ≤ x < 97.2466/250.28
    97.24 ≤ x < 97.6633/250.4
    97.66 ≤ x < 98.0866/250.64
    98.08 ≤ x < 98.566/250.88
    98.5 ≤ x < 98.9233/251

§ 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics

  • Experiments
    • Observational studies
    • Experiment
    • Treatment
    • Confounding
    • Control Group
    • Placebo Effect
    • Placebo controlled experiment
    • Blind Study
    • Double-blind Study
  • Ratio, Proportion, Percent